Mount Crosby Pumping Station Complex | Environment, land and water | Queensland Government

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Mount Crosby Pumping Station Complex

  • 650236
  • Stumers Road, Mount Crosby

General

Classification
State Heritage
Register status
Entered
Date entered
25 October 2019
Types
Natural feature: River/creek/watercourse
Residential: Cottage
Residential: Detached house
Residential: Duplex
Transport - Rail: Tramway
Transport—road: Bridge—road
Utilities - Water supply: Weir
Utilities—water supply: Pumping station
Themes
2.2 Exploiting, utilising and transforming the land: Exploiting natural resources
2.5 Exploiting, utilising and transforming the land: Managing water
2.8 Exploiting, utilising and transforming the land: Protecting and conserving the environment
3.11 Developing secondary and tertiary industries: Lodging people
4.1 Working: Organising workers and workplaces
5.3 Moving goods, people and information: Using rail
5.5 Moving goods, people and information: Using motor vehicles
6.1 Building settlements, towns, cities and dwellings: Establishing settlements and towns
6.3 Building settlements, towns, cities and dwellings: Developing urban services and amenities
6.4 Building settlements, towns, cities and dwellings: Dwellings
8.5 Creating social and cultural institutions: Sport and recreation
Architect
McLay, Charles H
Construction periods
1891–1892, Works Hill Employee Houses
1892–1915, former water intake, culvert, silt chamber and tunnel site (1892, with 1901 and 1915 modifications)
1892–1949, pumping station complex (1892-1949)
1899, remnant bridge foundations
1902–1918, remnant weir (1902, extended 1918)
1913, Tramway Weighbridge and Cabin
1913, Remnant freight tram branch line formation
1914–1926, Three electric winch tram house sites
1915, remnant aerial ropeway loading station site and route
1926–1928, Weir incorporating a vehicle overbridge and remnant tram tracks under bitumen
1926, Water Intake
1926, Former water intake and manhole site
1941, fish ladder
Historical period
1870s–1890s Late 19th century
1900–1914 Early 20th century
1914–1919 World War I
1919–1930s Interwar period
1939–1945 World War II
1940s–1960s Post-WWII

Location

Address
Stumers Road, Mount Crosby
LGA
Brisbane City Council
Coordinates
-27.53795009, 152.79913087

Map

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Significance

Criterion AThe place is important in demonstrating the evolution or pattern of Queensland’s history.

Mount Crosby Pumping Station Complex, established in 1892, is important in demonstrating the substantial infrastructure built to supply water to Brisbane. Through its alterations and expansions over time that increased and improved water supply, it is important in demonstrating the changes in water pumping technology in Queensland, from steam in the late-19th century, to electric in the mid-20th century.

The high integrity of the place, retaining diverse layers of waterworks features from many periods, both remnant and operational, provides a rich illustration of the long and continuous operation of the waterworks from the site.

The highly intact collection of workers’ houses built by the Brisbane Board of Waterworks in 1891-92 adjacent to its waterworks, are an important example of late-19th century workers’ housing in Queensland. The houses demonstrate the need to have a dedicated workforce available to consistently maintain and operate the historically remote steam-powered Pumping Station. The range of dwelling types reflects the hierarchy of employment positions, from the small drayman’s cottage and four fireman’s duplexes (1892), to the two large elevated engineers’ houses (1891).

The fish ladder at Mount Crosby, built in 1941 using funds provided by six local councils and the State Fisheries Department, was a combined government effort to save wild mullet. It is important in demonstrating a  coordinated government response to ensure the longevity of a native species essential to the state’s commercial fishing industry in south east Queensland.

Criterion BThe place demonstrates rare, uncommon or endangered aspects of Queensland’s cultural heritage.

Mount Crosby Pumping Station Complex is rare as the only known remaining example in Queensland of a pumping station complex established in the 19th century with intact 1891-92 workers’ housing, making this an exceptional example of its type.

The complex with its diverse layers of waterworks features from many periods is rare and retains a high level of integrity.

Criterion CThe place has potential to yield information that will contribute to an understanding of Queensland’s history.

The extensive Mount Crosby Pumping Station Complex has the potential to reveal further information about late 19th and early 20th century waterworks infrastructure and operations, the transition from steam to electric power, and the people who lived and worked there. 

Detailed analysis of the Pumping Station – its layered building fabric and associated fixtures and equipment – has the potential to address research questions relating to early and evolving waterworks technology, layout, construction, materials and operation. Broader analysis of the associated weirs, intakes and rising mains, including archaeological investigations to determine the location, design and construction of the original intake and tunnel, has the potential to contribute to a greater understanding of early and evolving water management systems for large-scale water supply.

Archaeological investigations of the remnant tramway, winch tram and aerial ropeway infrastructure, including surface and sub-surface features, has the potential to contribute to a greater understanding of the layout and operation of transportation systems associated with historically remote steam-powered waterworks.

The collection of workers residences may facilitate detailed studies relating to the proximity of industrial and domestic life, and social dynamics of the community in the late 19th century. Analysis of the layout, design and fabric of the residences and associated landscape features could address research questions relating to: the rationale behind the hierarchical siting of dwellings; and how the unusual use of duplexes may have reflected operational conditions.

Archaeological investigations of the Recreation Area have the potential to reveal sub-surface artefacts and features that might inform on the living conditions of the brief but intensive ‘day labour’ workforce, which camped on-site while constructing the Pumping Station, including addressing research questions relating to consumption activities, the presence of women and children, and the layout and nature of dwellings.

Criterion DThe place is important in demonstrating the principal characteristics of a particular class of cultural places.

Highly intact and with a high degree of integrity, Mount Crosby Pumping Station Complex is exceptional as an extensive Queensland public waterworks facility from the late-19th century with extensions and alterations to the mid-20th century for increased and improved water supply. It is important in demonstrating the principal characteristics of its type through its: waterside location; weirs (1902-18 and 1926-28) and water intake (1926); Pumping Station (1892-1949); associated waterworks resources supply infrastructure, including coal tram cabin and weighbridge (1913), tracks (1913 and 1926-28), and remnant tramway embankments, cuttings, and aerial ropeway loading station (1915); and, at isolated sites of the type, waterworks-provided worker’s houses (1891-92) and social facilities (Community Hall, 1919).

The Pumping Station is important as an exceptional example of a 19th century pumping station in Queensland with incremental changes reflecting the advancements in water pumping technology over 50 years. It is important in demonstrating the principal characteristics of its type through its: wells (1891, 1913, 1924, and 1941); engine house and annexe (1892-1941); boiler house (1891-1921); coal store (1921); economiser houses (1914 and 1921); offices, generator, and workshop building (1921); and additions and alterations to accommodate electrification (1948-49).

Criterion EThe place is important because of its aesthetic significance.

Mount Crosby Pumping Station Complex is a landmark central to the area’s identity, with the substantial industrial pumping station, weirs, bridge foundations juxtaposed against the otherwise vegetated riverbank vista from the west bank.

The place displays picturesque attributes with views unfolding along the winding, narrow private road, which connects the significant features. It provides shifting, attractive views to: the collection of matching, small timber houses and their yards; the hall; the large grassed and treed Recreation Area; the terraced gardens of Works Hill; the substantial pumping station with its attractive face brick facade and open, flat setting; and the waterworks structures built in and next to the Brisbane River – the intake tower, 1926-28 weir and overbridge, 1899 bridge remnants, and 1941 fish ladder.

Criterion GThe place has a strong or special association with a particular community or cultural group for social, cultural or spiritual reasons.

Established in 1892, Mount Crosby Pumping Station Complex has a strong association with past and present workers and their families, some of whom have generational links with the place. The once-remote site provided employment, housing, and recreation for the small community since the 1890s, and as such has played an important role in their lives. This continues to be demonstrated with events such as the ‘back to Mount Crosby’ day, held annually, and other events held by the Mount Crosby Historical Society.

History

Mount Crosby Pumping Station Complex is located 24km southwest of Brisbane’s CBD. Established in 1892 by the Brisbane Board of Waterworks as a means of providing Brisbane residents with a reliable source of clean water, the pumping station is situated alongside the Brisbane River from which the water is taken. The complex consists of the 1892 pumping station and a series of contemporaneously built workers’ houses, which provided accommodation for employees. Associated infrastructure and industrial remnants throughout the site represent the pumping station’s technological phases. Mount Crosby Pumping Station continues to provide Brisbane and its surrounds with clean, safe and reliable water.

The Mount Crosby district forms part of the traditional land of the Yuggera Ugarapul People. John Oxley first sailed up the Brisbane River in the early 1820s and named the area now known as Mount Crosby, Belle Vue. It was not until the mid-late 1850s that land at Mount Crosby began to be settled, with small farms emerging, and by the 1870s the majority of the land at Mount Crosby had been selected. Ipswich, the closest regional town, became the centre for supplies and market for the Mount Crosby farmers.[1]

The provision of clean water to Brisbane residents had been a challenge for the municipal authorities for many years and in 1863, to alleviate this problem, the Brisbane Waterworks Act 1863 was introduced, which enabled the Municipal Council to construct reservoirs, supply water to the town and to charge for services, but allowed the Queensland Government to influence decisions with the establishment of a Board of Waterworks. The Enoggera Dam [QHR 6025458] was completed in 1866 and provided reticulated water to the town, and in 1871 the first of Spring Hill’s Service Reservoirs [QHR 600174] improved the supply of water to Brisbane residents. Further improvements to the water supply were made with the construction of the Gold Creek Reservoir in the early 1880s.[2]

As the population of Brisbane grew and the water supply became increasingly stretched following a series of droughts, the Brisbane Board of Waterworks recognised the necessity for expansion of water infrastructure. In 1880, government hydraulic engineer, JB Henderson, recommended the construction of a pumping station at Mount Crosby, and in 1889 the Board’s chief engineer, Alexander Stewart, prepared plans for a new waterworks following the passing of legislation in 1889 (the Brisbane Water Supply Act 1889), when permission was granted to draw fresh water from the Brisbane River at Mount Crosby.[3]

1890-1902

The new works were to be constructed on the site of a former farm, on an elevated portion of land above the river, and at the base of a high hill. A brick pumping station, installed with the latest coal-powered steam engines, would pump the water up the hill to a reservoir, where it could be stored before being gravity-fed through a large pipeline to Brisbane. It was reported in 1891 that ‘only about twelve months have elapsed since the first workman struck his pick into the side of the hill to form the site for the buildings, and now the completion of the works is close at hand’.[4]

The contractor awarded the construction of the pumping station was Chamberlain & Wylie, with work commencing on the 1 August 1890. The Board appointed Joseph Stewart as Chief Engineer of the works; he would serve in this position until his death in 1919.[5] At the commencement of the work, Queensland was experiencing high levels of unemployment and it was estimated that more than 80 men were to be employed in the waterworks’ construction.[6] As initial work progressed well, in April 1891 the ceremony of laying the foundation stone was attended by numerous dignitaries, including the Colonial Secretary, Hon. Horace Tozer MLA, and ‘the stone being ready, and a raised platform having been erected for those present, the stone was laid on the left hand corner at the rear of the building’.[7]

Work progressed swiftly, and by December 1892 it was reported that the main brick buildings were complete, including the tall engine house, one-storey boiler house, and a 31.6m high chimney. All the bricks were locally made. There was also a timber coal shed, an office/operations room, and a timber weighbridge adjacent to the boiler house.[8] The steam-driven pumping machinery installed in the engine house was supplied by British company, Easton and Anderson Ltd., and the boiler house boilers were supplied by JW Sutton & Co., manufactured in their works at Kangaroo Point, Brisbane.[9]

The engine house was a tall building, aligned east/west and approximately 23m long and housed the pumping machinery. Inside the building, five circular concrete-lined wet wells (A, B, C, D and E - west to east), were dug to a depth of 36m into the ground from the ground floor of the engine house, each with a diameter of 2.4m. Within three of these wells (A, B, and C) the pumping equipment was held, with Wells D and E remaining vacant for future expansion. The pumps were ‘vertical, compound, tandem, direct-acting, condensing machines’, and were believed to take up less floor space than other types, as the machinery was designed to work in a vertical fashion, deep into the ground and high above it in the engine house. To service the equipment within the engine house, a hand-operated traveling crane was installed, running above the wells at a high level on parallel iron rails.[10]         

The boiler house was attached to the centre of the north side of the engine house and was aligned north/south. It was a 44m x 13.7m structure. The eastern wall was brick and the western wall featured open arches, which provided access from the detached coal store built at the western side of the boiler house. The design of the boiler house provided space for 13 boilers, although only 8 were installed. When working, the coal-fired boilers produced the steam that powered the pumping machines within the engine house. Water, drawn from the river at an intake constructed below the station, was forced through a pipeline up the steep incline to the reservoir, initially known as the High-level Reservoir, where the water was gravity fed down a series of pipelines to Brisbane.[11]    

The pumping machinery, being of the latest technology, was difficult to correctly install. To assist with this, as per the contract, in 1892 Easton and Anderson sent a company representative, Charles May, to supervise the machinery’s installation. May was also responsible for running the machines for six months following the start of operations.[12] After initial issues were quickly rectified, in June 1893 it was reported that ‘those dependent on the water supply at Brisbane will be glad to know that the machinery at Mount Crosby is at length working smoothly, and that a constant and reliable stream of good water is now flowing into the city from that source’.[13]

A stable means of coal delivery was crucial for the running of the station. All coal supplies came from the Tivoli coal mines, several kilometres away in North Ipswich. Initially, the coal was delivered by horse-drawn wagons, each capable of holding 3 tonnes of coal. The wagons crossed the river at Colleges Crossing, approximately 2.5km south of the pumping station.[14] In 1893, however, this bridge became a casualty of the flood. The coal then had to be transported across the river in punts, a costly and inefficient venture. In December 1893 the Board of Waterworks accepted a tender from Chamberlain and Wylie for the construction of a new bridge to be built over the river at the actual station. The bridge was completed in 1894.[15] Two years later, it was washed away by a flood, but rebuilt in 1897, only to be washed away again the following year. In 1899 a third bridge had been completed, which was thought to be flood-proof.[16] Drays continued to deliver the coal to the station across this bridge and it was estimated that between 3000 to 5000 tonnes were taken to the station per year.[17]

The site chosen for the pumping station was relatively remote, with only rudimentary tracks to the station from Ipswich and Brisbane. Employee housing was a major requirement for the Board of Waterworks. When work began on construction, accommodation for up to 80 men was required and tents were erected on the slopes surrounding the construction works. ‘Dotting the hillside at every eligible spot, lies the calico township of Mount Crosby, in the midst of which the great brick chimney stack … rears its lofty head’. Temporary structures were also built for offices and a store.[18]

Permanent housing for the pump station’s employees was a component of the Board’s original intent and in January 1891, respected Brisbane architect, Charles McLay, was commissioned by the Board to design eight houses.[19] McLay, who had been responsible for the design of the Brisbane Customs House in 1889 [QHR 600156], called for tenders in January 1891, and awarded the contract to Robert Rutherford.[20] It was not unusual in the late 19th century and into the 20th for a company to provide housing for their workers if situated in an isolated location, as Mount Crosby was.[21]

For the workers at the Mount Crosby pumping station a substantial brick chief engineer’s residence, two timber houses for the second and third engineers, four timber duplexes to house eight firemen and their families, and a small timber cottage for the drayman were constructed on a site beside the pumping station which became known as ‘Works Hill’. By December 1891, the three engineers’ residences had been completed, with the chief engineer’s house located on the rise at the northern side of Stumers Road (chief engineers’ house was demolished in the 1970s). The other two engineer’s houses were built higher up on the ridge of the hill and on the southern side of Stumers Road. One year later the remainder of the housing had been completed. Situated down the hill from the two engineers’ houses, were the four fireman’s duplexes, also on the south side of Stumers Road. Unusually for the time, the duplexes were not placed uniformly, facing a road, or within a grid layout, instead they followed the contours of the hill, each with a different outlook toward the pumping station or out to the high-level reservoir.[22] The drayman’s cottage, located closest to the pumping station and on the southern side of Stumers Road, was also complete by this time. In November 1892, the Telegraph reported:

Over a dozen very comfortable looking houses have been erected on the slope of the hill at the bottom of which is the pumping station. The second and third engineers occupy the first two houses on the left going towards the engine house, and the eight firemen are accommodated a little lower down the slope, the chief engineer’s house, an exceedingly nice brick cottage, being near the works, but opposite to the other houses. In this way all those engaged on the works live on the spot.[23]     

The decision of the Board to construct duplexes rather than detached cottages was unusual, and may have been for economic reasons. Due to the passing of the Undue Subdivision of Land Prevention Act 1885, which legislated the size of housing allotments to prevent an increase in slum conditions, in crowded, inner-city Brisbane suburbs such as Spring Hill and Petrie Terrace, duplexes and terrace houses were rarely constructed in Queensland after 1885. As all the land on which the duplexes were built was owned by the board, allotment sizes did not need to be considered.[24]  

For such an important plant it was imperative to have the majority of staff on hand. When first complete, the pumps were worked for up to 16 hours a day in two shifts, requiring constant attendance at the station, in particular the firemen, whose job it was to stoke the boilers with coal.[25]

The chief engineer’s role was essential to the running of not only the station, but also the high-level reservoir and the main lines to Brisbane. Clear lines of communication to Waterworks’ offices in the Brisbane CBD were essential. Queensland’s longest telephone line at the time was installed, which ran from the engineer’s house to Brisbane. As was the case with much of the station’s machinery, the use of the latest technology demonstrated the importance of the station to the region.[26]  

Other municipal water pumping stations with steam-powered equipment were established in Queensland at this time, including at Rockhampton (1873), Ipswich (1878), Toowoomba (1879), Warwick (1887), Maryborough (1880) and Charters Towers (1887) [QHR 601081]. All were smaller in scale than Mount Crosby, which remains the only large-scale pumping station complex remaining from this period with intact 19th century workers’ housing. The majority of these sites retain only remnants of the early stations. Maryborough (Tinana Creek) still pumps water, however, there is no longer any early fabric remaining on the site.[27]

In 1893, a state school, located several hundred meters away from the pumping station, along Stumers Road, replaced a smaller 1882 provisional school, providing education to employees’ children.[28]  

1902-1921

In the early 1900s, Queensland experienced a severe drought that caused the Mount Crosby section of the Brisbane River to become a series of waterholes and almost ceased the flow of water down the river. Chief Engineer, J Stewart, initially took steps to alleviate this by sending men upstream to dig channels to release water. Further emergency measures were taken when a sandbag and clay weir was built just below the 1892 intake. A permanent solution was approved by the board in 1902 and a 3m high, concrete weir was constructed 700m downstream from the original intake.[29]

The quality of the water delivered to Brisbane was often criticised, as it was frequently turbid and odorous. These concerns were voiced by the Central Board of Health who believed the water was not fit for human consumption. Following several reports undertaken by Sydney and American hydraulic engineers and bacteriologists, it was recommended that a plant be constructed to purify the water before its distribution. In 1910, the Metropolitan Water and Sewerage Board replaced the Board of Waterworks and approved the construction of a water treatment plant on Mount Crosby.[30] Works included the construction of two separate plants – the low-level treatment works, situated below the original 1890s high-level reservoir, and the Holt’s Hill filtration plant, at a higher elevation. The high-level reservoir was then used to hold water to be used as wash-water for cleaning the filtration plant’s sedimentation basins. This work had been completed by 1918.[31]   

Major improvements were also made to the pumping station at this time. Much of the equipment was deemed to be inefficient and tenders were called for its upgrading, ‘the proposed new pumping plant was of three units, each capable of delivering 6,000,000 gallons [27,000,000 litres] of water from the Brisbane River in 24 hours’. The accepted tender (albeit the sole tender) was Victorian company, Thompson and Co., with a total cost of £107, 641 for equipment and installation.[32] Three vertical steam engines were to replace the older three. Three wells (the original Wells C, D, and E) were converted into dry wells and widened to accommodate the new engines, reshaping them from circular to oval. One of the original wells (originally Well B) was converted into a lift well and retained. With the expansion of the wells, the engine house required extension northwards and eastwards resulting in a larger floorplate. A new 15 tonne hand-operated travelling crane was installed to service the expanded building and electric lighting was also installed in the engine house at this time.[33]

Four of the original boilers were replaced with more efficient Babcock & Wilcox boilers; this required a higher roof on the boiler house. On the east side of the boiler house was built a brick economiser house, adjacent to the chimney to accommodate economiser flues, components of the new equipment. The new pumps were operational by 1916.[34] 

The inefficient coal transportation system was also rectified at this time when approval was given by the Board for the construction of a tramway from the Tivoli railway station to the Mount Crosby pumping station. The new line was to be maintained and worked by the Metropolitan Water and Sewerage Board. Work on the 7km tramway had been completed by December 1913 at a cost of £31,000. The tramway was built to first-class railway standards. As it had been privately built, however, it could not officially be termed a rail line.[35] On the west bank of the river, a 30-tonne capacity weighbridge and small cabin was constructed at the rise of the steep embankment. While initial intention was for the locomotives to deliver the coal directly to the pumping station, the steep embankments on both sides of the river prevented this. As an alternative, electric winches were installed on each side of the river to haul the wagons across the bridge to the station. The tramway was continuously used until 1945 when trucks replaced it.[36]

The construction of the water treatment plant on Holt’s Hill was difficult, due to Mount Crosby’s steep terrain. An aerial ropeway was installed from the west bank, across the river and over the rugged hills, ultimately landing at the apex of the hill at the water treatment plant. The aerial ropeway was powered by a steam engine installed on the west bank and situated slightly further downstream from the weighbridge; the loading station was located here as well. Operational by 1915, the ropeway hauled substantial iron bins to and from the treatment plant’s base, with an interim stop at the low-level reservoir. The bins were filled with gravel needed for concrete making, sand for the filtration systems and many other necessary materials, ‘with the delivery of the materials for a ropeway tramway passing over the hills switchback fashion, and connecting Holt’s hill with the gravel pits, a system which would accelerate construction work at the purification works’.[37] The ropes were suspended by timber trestles (up to 11.5m high) or steel trestles (up to 27m high), depending on the height required. The aerial ropeway was used until 1931, when the east bank trestle was damaged by a flood.[38] 

In 1919, a hall was opened. Situated up the hill from the chief engineers’ house, it became the social centre for the Mount Crosby community. Events such as balls, community meetings, church services and fundraising evenings were well-attended by the small Mount Crosby community. In 2019 the hall is used as a child-care centre.[39]

Further work at the pumping station was carried out from 1920, with the construction of a freestanding, one-storey brick office, generator, and workshop building to the east of the pumping station building. It was designed to complement the brick pumping station. Administration offices, a bathroom, and large open store area were accommodated in the front section. Behind this was a generator room and adjacent condenser room, and behind this was a large machines workshop. The southern end of the building was not enclosed, providing easy access into the workshop.[40]

1922-1940

In 1922, the Mount Crosby pumping station began supplying water to Ipswich. Prior to this, Ipswich had supplied its own water from a smaller pumping facility at Kholo, also on the Brisbane River, but due to Ipswich’s increasing population, supply became strained.[41]

The remainder of the original pumping equipment was removed from the engine house at this time, with another three oval dry pumping wells constructed at the western end of the engine house, requiring further expansion of the engine house another 12.5m west. The original Well A was demolished but Well B, the lift, was retained. In 1925, a three-storey annexe was constructed, projecting from the rear of the engine house to house a turboalternator, used to generate electricity to the pumps at Lake Manchester, several kilometres away. The upper floors became electrical workshops, accessed by an external staircase.[42]

The boiler house was extended to the north and a higher roof was added over this section; a second economiser house was built on its east side, beside the chimney, and a large coal store, accessed by tram rails that ran into the building, was added along the west side of the boiler house. These new buildings had attractive arched brick façades, unifying the different sections, and were completed by 1921.[43]

Important work to construct a new intake was carried out in the 1920s. It was to be situated near the pumping station and 150m north of the original intake. The design included the construction of a concrete tower on the eastern bank of the river that would hold the associated equipment and strainer wells. From the intake tower, a 1.8m wide underground tunnel would convey the water to the station, where it was distributed to the various pumping engines. The new intake was completed by 1926 and the use of the original one ceased.[44]     

As part of these improvements, a new weir was constructed across the river between the 1899 bridge and the intake tower. The new weir incorporated a vehicle overbridge with a tramway to replace the older bridge. Electric haulage of the coal wagons was continued across the new overbridge, with the haulage winch shifted to the north on the west bank. The design of the weir allowed floodwaters to flow through concrete pillars and, theoretically, spare the overbridge from damage. Plans were approved in 1921 and the work was completed in 1925.[45] In February 1927, major flooding damaged the new weir and all but destroyed the 1899 bridge, with one report saying ‘the main course of the Brisbane River has been altered by a huge washaway that carried away in the flood many thousands of tons of earth, tearing a chasm 50 yards wide and 20 feet deep at the end of the composite weir and bridge, and leaving the railway swinging in the air like a clothesline’.[46] The floodwaters gouged out a large section of the west bank leaving a 76m section of tramline swinging in the air. The cost to repair the damage was considerable as the weir and overbridge required further extension and stronger footings at the west bank. This was completed in 1928.[47]  

The Brisbane City Council took over the Mount Crosby Pumping Station in 1928, following the dissolution of the Metropolitan Water Supply and Sewerage Board. It was then administered by the Department of Water Supply and Sewerage.

In 1938, a three storey extension was made to the engine house annexe to house a new circular well, Well G. Two centrifugal pumps, capable of delivering 22.7 million litres of water per day, were installed in the well and the turboalternator converted to power the new engines. A small fan house to hold a centrifugal fan used to cool the engines was erected beside the extension.[48]   

1940-2019

An unforeseen issue arose following the completion of the weir, as mullet stock, once plentiful in the upper reaches of the Brisbane River, began to wane. The weir blocked their passage upstream, following spawning season when they had travelled downstream. Anglers on the upper reaches began to notice the depleted stock, and farmers were concerned with the higher numbers of leeches, previously controlled by the mullet as a food source, affecting the cattle. Heavily depleted mullet stock was likewise identified by the coastal fishing industry. Concern was raised by the Esk, Kilkoy, and Crows Nest shire councils. In September 1940, agreement had been reached between Brisbane, Ipswich, Moreton, Esk, Laidley, and Gatton shire councils to contribute to half of the £250 it would cost to build a fish ladder. The remainder would be paid by the State Fisheries Department.[49]

The Brisbane City Council built the fish ladder on the east bank of the river below the weir. It consisted of a stepping series of concrete ponds over which the water cascaded. Each step held a fairly deep pool of water from which the fish would jump 23cm into the next pool, eventually reaching the top of the ladder and gain freedom in the upper reaches of the river. At this time it was reported, ‘lately fish ladders have been in the local news. They are familiar things abroad, especially in America, and now the Brisbane City Council and the State Government are combining to build one at Mount Crosby Weir’.[50] Although fish ladders were not a new concept, with many being constructed in the USA, Canada and New Zealand to assist salmon, the Mount Crosby fish ladder is the earliest known fish ladder in Queensland. The ladder had been completed by March 1941 and in late April the Fisheries Department reported to the State Treasurer that large numbers of young mullet were using the ladder, and stocks upstream were swiftly replenishing. The base of the fish ladder was damaged in the 1980s following works on the mains. [51]      

As World War II intensified following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour on 7 December 1941, the threat of a Japanese attack on Queensland was viewed by the authorities as likely. Protection of southeast Queensland’s foremost water supply plant was crucial, and in 1942, three anti-aircraft guns were placed strategically at high points around the station and a small military camp was set up between the pumping station and the low-level reservoir. At the same time, the water mains between Ipswich and Mount Crosby were patrolled. Windows on the northern and eastern facades of the pumping station were bricked-in. By 1943, the perceived threat had abated and all military installations removed.[52]   

Another era of considerable change at the station began in the late 1940s, with the plant’s complete conversion to electricity. A sub-station was constructed south of the engine house through which the City Electric Light Company supplied the plant. A central control room was installed on the first floor of the engine house annexe.[53] From the control room a door was cut into the engine house wall, and a steel mezzanine deck was built, on which a switchroom was installed. This deck extended almost the entire length of the engine house, 7.3m above the ground floor (later removed). All the steam-powered pumping equipment was removed in stages and replaced with more efficient, electricity-driven equipment. The boilers were also removed at this time. New pumping equipment was installed, each with the capacity to hold two pumps, rather than only one steam-driven pump, as was the case prior to electrification. Each pump was capable of pumping 49 million litres of water each day. With well G also in operation, the pumping station had the capacity to pump 365 million litres per day. The plant was fully electrified by 1951 at a cost of £287,000, with the Queensland Government contributing £57,400 and Brisbane City Council covering the remainder. [54]

The official opening ceremony was held on the 30 March 1951, and was attended by dignitaries including the Premier, Edward Hanlon, and Brisbane Lord Mayor, John Beal Chandler. Prior to electrification, each shift at the station had required 20 men, but with the new technology, only two men were needed.[55] The control room became the centre for the plant and was described at the time:

Here, on a large curved desk top, the whole installation is represented diagrammatically, the electrical supply system and the motors and pumps and valves, and in this diagram miniature switches are incorporated. These switches control the whole of the operation, and from this point the operator can start and stop pumps or operate as he wills. Coloured lights, green, yellow and red, tell a constant story of the plant operation, so the operator standing at this desk knows exactly what is happening in all parts of the station.[56]

In 1953, the generator room and condenser room, located in the 1920s building, were refitted as an electrical workshop. With the new capacity, a new intake was constructed in 1957, beside the 1920s intake tower. In 1958, the towering brick chimney was demolished and the resultant space in the façade bricked up to make a storeroom.[57] In 1959, a 4 tonne electric crane was added to the existing rails of the earlier hand operated crane (which was retained). Photographs from this period show the tram tracks had been removed from around the pumping station grounds, with coal not needed after electrification; however, they remained in situ on the 1926-28 overbridge. [58]

Further enhancements were made to the station during the 1960s and 1970s, including the installation of pumps in Wells E and F. A second switchroom was built under the roof of the southern half of the former boiler house.  In 1975 work began on a new well, Well H, resulting in the southern half of the former coal store being demolished and a new brick enclosure constructed in its place.[59] By 1963, the pumping station was providing 682,000 people with clean water.[60]

From the late 1950s to the 1970s extensive landscaping and garden improvements were carried out. In the 1970s, the ornamental front fountain was installed. A stepped retaining wall facing the river was also constructed at this time, and a disused pumping station building from Lake Manchester was re-erected on the southern hill above the station. The 15 tonne crane in the engine house was relocated to this building.[61] Since the 1970s, few alterations to the station’s fabric have been made. In 2019, Mount Crosby Pumping Station continues to provide Brisbane and its surrounds with clean and safe water. The Mount Crosby community plays a continuing role in the promotion of their history, with an active historical society and participation in annual events such as Brisbane Open House and the ‘Back to Mount Crosby’ days. 

The Mount Crosby Pumping Station Complex has been an important part of Queensland’s industrial history since first established in 1892. Several important technological phases in Queensland’s history are reflected in the buildings, infrastructure, and industrial remnants. In continuous operation, the station has provided generations of workers with employment and accommodation in the adjacent worker’s houses, reflecting the importance of providing accommodation to company workers in remote locations in the late 19th century. The prominent waterworks operation, incorporating daily life as place of employment, residence, and recreation, and the relatively remote location, fostered a close-knit and social community of workers and their families.

Description

Mount Crosby Pumping Station Complex occupies approximately 10 hectares of land in the two outer suburbs of Mount Crosby and Chuwar, either side of the Brisbane River, 24km southwest of the Brisbane CBD. The complex is organised into separate but adjacent connected zones that reflect the historical operations and key phases of technological development that have formed the place.

Process Driven Layout

Freight, including coal to fuel the steam-powered pumping station, was transported from the west, initially carted overland (1892) then via a locomotive tramway (1913), with an electric winch tram (1914) used for the steep approaches to the river crossings (1899 bridge remnants, 1926-28 weir overbridge) that accessed the Pumping Station (1892) on the east bank. A branch line on the west bank curved south to a loading station for the aerial ropeway (1915) that spanned the river to convey construction materials to the treatment plant to the northeast.

The flow of the river was managed by weirs (1902 south, 1926-28 north), and water from intakes (1892 south, 1926 north) on the east bank was pumped through to the Pumping Station wells, then north in underground mains (1892, 1914, 1923, 1948) to the reservoir and subsequent treatment plant. Within the Pumping Station, the engine room contained a row of water pumps set above the deep wells, initially powered by coal-fired boilers housed in the adjacent boiler house, and subsequently expanded and upgraded, including phased electrification (1938-51). A dedicated workforce to maintain and operate the Pumping station resided on elevated ‘Works Hill’ to the east, with access to the Pumping Station via a private road.

The zones, and the features of state-level cultural heritage significance in them, are:

 Westbank (Chuwar) – former resources supply area

  • tramway weighbridge and cabin (both 1913)
  • two electric winch tram house sites (1914 and 1926)
  • remnant freight tram branch line formation (c1913)
  • remnant aerial ropeway loading station site (1915) and route

 Brisbane River – water supply and crossing

  • (from upstream/north to downstream/south)
  • water intake (1926)
  • former water intake and manhole site (1926)
  • weir incorporating a vehicle overbridge (1926-28) and remnant tram tracks under bitumen
  • fish ladder (1941)
  • remnant bridge foundations (1899)
  • former water intake, culvert, silt chamber and tunnel site (1892, with 1901 and 1915 modifications)
  • remnant weir (1902, extended 1918)

Eastbank (Mount Crosby) – operations and workers’ residential area

  • pumping station complex (1892-1949), including
    • Pump House (1892-1949)
    • Office, Generator, and Workshop Building (1921)
    • Electrical Substation (1948)
    • open service areas around the complex
  • Works Hill – a cluster of company-provided employee houses (1891-92), their individual house yards, and a communal recreation landscape
  • electric winch tram house site (1914)
  • private road, cuttings, and embankments from Stumers Road to pumping station and weir overbridge

Views

The extensive site includes views of state-level cultural heritage significance. These are:

  • the attractive, panoramic view of the river, treed landscape, and waterworks buildings and related structures from the western approach of the 1926-28 overbridge (the c2011 boulders added to the east riverbank are not of state-level cultural heritage significance)
  • the open view of the Brisbane River and 1926-28 weir from the western grounds of the Pumping Station complex
  • the scenic views that unfold along the bridge road on the eastern side of the river of the narrow road, treed grass verges on both sides, pumping station complex, treed and grassed common, extensive rock walls and landscaped gardens, and the buildings and yards of Works Hill, which creates a ‘village’ character. Views along the road display the collection of small, consistent timber buildings contrasting with the massive, masonry pumping station buildings in the rural riverside setting.

Westbank

Occupying a large pocket of land on the west side of the Brisbane River, the Westbank zone retains features and areas of archaeological potential from its historical use as the resources receiving and supply area for the waterworks. A later large water treatment plant has been built on much of the land and is not of state-level cultural heritage significance.

Features of state-level cultural heritage significance are:

  • freight tram weighbridge (1913) with: 
    • concrete weighing platform (approximately 4m long) trenched into the ground with tram rails embedded in the platform top
    • adjacent embedded steel member stamped with ‘H. POOLEY & SONS BIRMINGHAM & LONDON NO.1503.1913’
    • platform pit and access hatch (excluding later steel hatch lid)
  • small timber-framed and -clad lowset weighbridge cabin (c1913) with:
    • weatherboard-clad walls
    • corrugated metal sheet-clad gable roof and early metal rainwater goods (gutters and downpipe)
    • ledged and braced timber board-clad door
    • opening with ledged and braced timber board shutter facing weighbridge
    • unlined interior with concrete slab floor
    • floor-mounted metal and timber freight weighing scale stamped POOLEY & SONS standing near window
  • two electric tram winch house sites, located southeast (1914) and northeast (1926) of the weighbridge cabin
  • remnant tramway branch formation curving south from the weighbridge to the aerial ropeway loading station (c1915), comprising earth cuttings and embankments
  • remnant aerial ropeway resources loading station site (c1915) comprising:
    • earth cutting and level area with a concrete slab with embedded metal bolts[1]
    • two concrete slabs on the rise to the west, one with embedded metal bolts

Brisbane River

The Brisbane River is approximately 150m wide at this location and this zone retains features from its use as the water supply for the waterworks.

Features of the Brisbane River zone of state-level cultural heritage significance are:

Water Intake (1926) standing in the river near the east river bank, comprising a concrete water intake well, its tower equipment enclosure, and footbridge from the river bank to the tower.

Features of the water intake (1926) of state-level cultural heritage significance are:

  • concrete intake wells and tower
  • concrete footbridge to tower including embedded steel rails for former screen carriage
  • large door opening in tower (excluding later door leaves)
  • three openings facing river (excluding later glazing)
  • early equipment in tower including hand operated travelling crane on rails, wall-mounted access ladder, and sluice gate headstocks and spindles

Features of the water intake (1926) not of state-level cultural heritage significance are:

  • steel pipe balustrade on footbridge
  • large timber-framed double entrance doors to tower
  • later window glazing
  • steel chequer-plate floor in tower
  • later equipment

Weir incorporating a vehicle overbridge (1926-28) connecting the waterworks operations of Westbank and Eastbank, standing approximately 15m downstream from the water intake.

Features of the weir (1926-28) of state-level cultural heritage significance are:

  • concrete weir, concrete overbridge, and its concrete embankment wing walls extending on both sides of the bridge and on both banks
  • concrete brackets on downstream side of overbridge supporting a cross-river water pipe
  • freight tram track concealed under bitumen road surface

Features of the weir (1926-28) not of state-level cultural heritage significance are:

  • cross-river water pipe
  • bitumen and any other road surface material
  • metal railings and barriers on bridge and approach

Fish Ladder (1941), approximately 25m long, on east bank of river adjacent to 1926-28 weir, comprising a chain of rectangular stepped concrete ponds connecting the upstream and downstream sides of the 1926-28 weir. The lower portion of the ladder has been altered to reduce its width and demolish the lowest ponds.

Features of the fish ladder of state-level cultural heritage significance are:

  • original chain of ponds, remnants of original ponds now disused, and open space of the original route where ponds have been demolished

Features of the fish ladder not of state-level cultural heritage significance are:

  • lower portion alterations (c1978-84): non-original concrete upstand and ponds; non-original size and alignment (narrower and cranked from original)

Remnant Foundations of former cross-river coal dray bridge (1899, destroyed by flood 1927), located approximately 7m downstream of 1926-28 weir.

Features of the remnant bridge foundations of state-level cultural heritage significance are:

  • round concrete piles (grouped in threes) into river bed, extending above waterline supporting remnants of large timber bridge posts

Remnant River Weir (1902, extended 1918), approximately 800m downstream from 1926-28 weir.

Features of the remnant river weir of state-level cultural heritage significance are:

  • concrete weir (1902) and concrete extension (1918, east extent of weir)
  • concrete wing walls
  • central sluice gate opening in spillway (sluice gate and its guides are missing, allowing river to pass through)
  • metal water pipes on upstream side of weir wall

The Brisbane River zone has potential for sub-surface features associated with:

  • the former water intake culvert and manhole site (1926), located at depth between the water intake (1926) and pumping station
  • the former water intake site (1892, with 1901 and 1915 modifications), located at depth approximately 150m downstream of 1926-28 weir, including a concrete diverting wall on the former riverbank, a curved culvert, a silt chamber and a tunnel to the Pumping Station.

Features of the Brisbane River zone not of state-level cultural heritage significance are:

  • 1961 intake and its associated infrastructure
  • all post-1950 infrastructure, retaining walls, landscaping, and vegetation not identified

Eastbank

Occupying a large, steeply-sloping area of land on the east side of the Brisbane River, the Eastbank zone retains features and areas of archaeological potential from its use as the waterworks pumping operation centre (pumping station) and workers’ residential area. The Pumping Station stands on a large, flattened terrace adjacent to the river. The workers’ residential area is immediately east of the Pumping Station, on higher land (Works Hill) overlooking the station and the river. A private road winds its way from the overbridge, past the Pumping Station, up Works Hill through the residential area to meet Stumers Road, which continues past the remainder of the residences to the main centre of Mount Crosby, 400m east.

The Pumping Station

The steam-powered pumping station was expanded and upgraded over time, responding to the increased demands on the water supply and as new technology became available, including the transition to electrification (1939-51).

Features of the Pumping Station of state-level cultural heritage significance are:

Pump House

The Pump House (1892-1949) is a large masonry building standing at the front of the site, addressing the bridge road to the north. It has many attached parts to its form, which expresses the original functions of the parts. The attached parts comprise: a Coal Store on the west side; a central Boiler House; two Economiser Houses on the east side (flanking the location of the former chimney, demolished 1958); and a tall Engine House on the building’s south end with a perpendicular tall Engine House Annexe projecting from the rear. A face brick wall (1921) of arches wraps the front and east side (Coal Store, Boiler House, and Economiser House), providing a robust and attractive, unified facade. This wall retains original metal downpipes, and square-headed windows and doors with timber-framed double-hung, multi-paned sashes and timber-framed boarded French doors with fanlights.

Features of the Pump House also of state-level cultural heritage significance are:

Forecourt (former coal receiving area)

Features of the Forecourt of state-level cultural heritage significance are:

  • large, flat and open front forecourt space (progressively extended north and west by earthworks from 1892)

Features of the Forecourt not of state-level cultural heritage significance are:

  • bitumen road surface
  • grassed island with fountain and wall (1976)
  • garden beds against Pump House front wall (post-c1950s)
  • vegetation and grassed areas

Coal Store (1921). This single-storey building has a hipped roof clad with metal sheets. The building’s southern half has been demolished and replaced with a concrete frame and face brick structure for Well H.\

Features of the Coal Store also of state-level cultural heritage significance are:

  • large open space with connection through large openings to adjacent Boiler House
  • concrete floor
  • exposed metal wall and roof framing (1921)
  • face brick interior finish to front wall
  • internal, exposed metal downpipes at box gutters

Features of the Coal Store not of state-level cultural heritage significance are:

  • metal roof sheets (modern rib and pan, which has replaced original corrugated sheets) and skylights
  • metal sheets cladding west wall (modern, which has replaced original corrugated sheets)
  • later alterations to front wall for enclosure of western three arches (originally open for receiving coal)
  • internal chainwire fences, stairs, fixtures, fittings, services, and furniture
  • concrete frame and face brick structure for Well H Enclosure, including Well H, its loading bay, and Switch Room No.3 (1976) – note: eastern edge of switch room and loading bay intrude under adjacent boiler house roof, which is of state-level cultural heritage significance

Boiler House (1892, extended to the north 1921). Attached to and opening from the eastern side of the Coal Store, the Boiler House is a single-storey building with a hipped roof clad with corrugated metal sheets. A large concrete-framed and concrete block enclosure for Switch Room No.2 has been inserted under the roof of the southern half of the building.

Features of the Boiler House also of state-level cultural heritage significance are:

  • roof (built in two phases: south half, 1914; north half, 1921) (its ventilated lantern roof has been removed and replaced with a conventional ridge)
  • large open space with connection through large openings to adjacent Coal Store, demolished chimney, and Economiser Houses (openings to demolished chimney and south Economiser House have been closed over with later masonry)
  • exposed metal roof framing
  • concrete floor

Features of the Boiler House not of state-level cultural heritage significance are:

  • roof ridge replacing original lantern and its whirly bird ventilators
  • Switch Room No.2 (1965), concrete-framed and block structure including its associated stairs and access openings

Economiser Houses (southern house, 1914; northern house, 1921). These two similar single-storey buildings are attached to the side of the Boiler House, which they serviced. They are separated from each other by a later storeroom (1958), which was built in place of the large demolished chimney they fed into.

Features of the Economiser Houses also of state-level cultural heritage significance are:

  • face brick enclosure walls with arched piers
  • gable (1914) and hipped (1921) roofs with ventilated lanterns and metal sheet cladding
  • original square-headed doors and windows, with timber-framed double hung sashes and boarded double door leaves
  • concrete floor
  • face brick interior finish to walls
  • exposed metal roof framing
  • open spaces with connections through to Boiler House and demolished chimney (sealed over)
  • remnant sub-surface chimney foundations (1891) between economiser houses
  • remnants of removed economiser flues

Features of the Economiser Houses not of state-level cultural heritage significance are:

  • alterations related to the insertion of a Greasers’ Room (1964) in the south Economiser House (in 2019 this is a control room)
  • storeroom structure (1958) between the Economiser Houses
  • internal chainwire fences, stairs, fixtures, fittings, services, and furniture

Engine House (1892, extended 1913 and 1925). This tall narrow rectangular face brick building is attached to the south end of the Coal Store, Boiler House, and south Economiser House. It has a gable roof clad with corrugated metal sheets.

Features of the Engine House also of state-level cultural heritage significance are:

  • face brick walls with extensions clearly legible in different colour brickwork
  • arch-headed windows and doors, timber-framed casement windows, boarded double doors, and fanlights
  • early metal rainheads and downpipes
  • early metal roof ridge ventilators
  • tall open space of the engine room (formerly accommodating tall pumps) with exposed roof structure
  • cast iron foundation frames of the three former Thompson engines (1916)
  • basement level for pump machinery access
  • steel chequer plate metal floor sheets (c1921)
  • seven concrete wells in Engine House floor (approximately 27m deep): one small circular well (1892) and lift shaft (inserted into the well c1920-5) providing access down to the access areas at the bottom of the wells; and six elliptical wells (1913 and 1921)
  • steel rails of travelling crane mounted at a high-level on long walls
  • remnants of high-level mezzanine (former Switch Room No.1, 1949) of steel I-beams, including beams cut off and left embedded in walls from removed mezzanine section
  • wall-mounted metal plaques, including dedication and commemorative plaques

Features of the Engine House not of state-level cultural heritage significance are:

  • fabric associated with alterations post-1949
  • narrow, mid-level access galleries (post-1948)
  • later mezzanine handrail and other metal pipe railings
  • high level travelling crane
  • pumps and associated equipment
  • ducts and services

Engine House Annexe (1926, extended 1941). This three level building projects from the rear (south) wall of the Engine House. On the ground floor, it accommodates a switch room and Well G (in a part basement level), an internal stair up to a first floor former Central Control Room, and an external stair from here to a second floor former electrical workshop.

Features of the Engine House Annexe also of state-level cultural heritage significance include:

  • the building’s tall rectangular narrow form with gable roof clad with corrugated metal sheets and large square opening into Engine House at ground floor
  • face brick walls with 1941 extension legible in different brickwork
  • arch-headed windows, door, and second floor window converted to door (1941), timber-framed casement windows, boarded door (second floor), and fanlights
  • basement level for pump machinery access
  • concrete and timber floor structure of first and second floors
  • ground floor interior: Well G (1941), a circular concrete well; internal stair (1949) to first floor, its timber-framed glazed enclosure and door with auto-closer into Central Control Room, timber handrail, solid balustrades, and wall cladding of perforated squares; wall-mounted delivery gauge ‘HATHORN, DAVEY & Co.
  • first floor interior: Central Control Room and its: rubberised floor finish; large, green, curved control panel (original 1949 section of panel and later sections added with expansion); switch cabinets; lunch room; locker room and its timber lockers; wall-mounted well indicator panel; and the short stair and glazed double doors into upper level of Engine House (formerly to Switch Room No.1 mezzanine, now removed
  • second floor interior: former electrical workshop and its: exposed metal roof framing; unlined ceiling; face brick walls and lime wash on 1926 section; brass window and door hardware; and hoist well above Well G connecting through all three levels, its boarded timber and weighted trapdoors, ceiling hook, and winch

Features of the Engine House Annexe not of state-level cultural heritage significance are:

  • external steel stair on western wall (later replacement of the original timber version)
  • Portal extension (1969) and associated travelling crane, services, and loading bay
  • aluminium-framed windows, security bars, and louvred grilles
  • Central Control Room: suspended ceiling (1949 perforated square panels might survive behind)

Office, Generator, and Workshop Building (1921)

The Office, Generator, and Workshop Building (1921) is a single storey face brick building standing back from the front of the site. It stands on the east side of the Pump House, separated from it by a service road. It comprises three attached sections: a front (north) section accommodating offices with a large storeroom behind; a former Generator Room and Condenser Room (now one space) attached to the rear of storeroom; and a Machine Workshop attached to the rear of the generator and condenser rooms.

Features of the Office, Generator, and Workshop Building of state-level cultural heritage significance are:

  • face brick exterior walls with decorative corbelling and smooth concrete dressings
  • hip and gable roofs: clad with corrugated metal sheets; gablets with louvred vents; metal ridge ventilators; wide ventilated eaves lined with timber battens (office and storeroom section); metal quad gutters and circular downpipes
  • concrete spoon drain at wall base
  • joinery: timber-framed boarded double doors with fanlight (front entrance to offices); multi-paned double-hung windows; moulded architraves
  • brass window hardware

Features of the Offices of state-level cultural heritage significance are:

  • layout: masonry partitions forming four rooms and a hall[2] with a door and window from the larger rear room into the attached storeroom behind
  • smooth-rendered walls – smaller rear room (labelled ‘bathroom’ on early plans) has scribed dado (and no skirting board)
  • high-level wall vents
  • joinery: moulded skirtings and cornices; V-jointed (VJ) board-lined ceilings; fretwork door fanlights

Features of the Offices not of state-level cultural heritage significance are:

  • window security grilles
  • floor finishes

 Features of the Storeroom of state-level cultural heritage significance are:

  • layout: single large open space, main entrance from service lane;
  • concrete floor; brick walls; steel stanchions; exposed timber roof framing
  • joinery: timber-framed, braced-and-ledged, boarded large double doors; small boarded hatch door in east wall to side passage

Features of the Storeroom not of state-level cultural heritage significance are:

  • passageway into adjacent Generator Room (possibly an original small opening enlarged)
  • window security grilles
  • floor finishes
  • lightweight partitions
  • ceiling (originally, Storeroom was not ceiled)

Features of the Generator Room and Condenser Room of state-level cultural heritage significance are:

  • layout:[3] double doors from service road (aligning with the door into main door of Engine House); evidence of removed wall between generator and condenser rooms; observation window from adjacent Machine Workshop into Generator Room; double doors from Condenser Room through to adjacent Machine Workshop; timber-framed and VJ-lined part-height enclosure (former ‘bathroom’) in Condenser Room with panelled door
  • concrete floor; masonry walls; metal roof framing (Generator Room) and timber king post roof trusses (Condenser Room)
  • higher-quality surface finishes to former Generator Room: coloured terrazzo threshold; tessellated floor tiles outlining generators; smooth rendered walls with scribed dado
  • trap door in floor of Generator Room
  • four high-level steel beams (formerly over generators)
  • ventilation of Generator Room: louvred vents and small window in west gable end apex; ventilated roof lantern over Generator Room
  • gable apex window opening in Condenser Room
  • joinery: single, glazed, fixed panel with moulding in west doorway; double-hung windows with moulded architraves (north wall); early boarded door between Condenser Room and Welding Bay Annexe

Features of the Generator Room and Condenser Room not of state-level cultural heritage significance are:

  • later opening into adjacent storeroom from Generator Room
  • joinery: later timber-framed double door leaves in entrance (west) doorway (replacement of original fixed panel and narrow double doors)
  • timber-framed mezzanine in Condenser Room
  • later metal-framed louvres infill of gable apex window in Condenser Room
  • later lantern glazing (lantern likely not glazed originally)

Features of the Machine Workshop of state-level cultural heritage significance are:

  • layout: a single, large open workshop space with large double doors from service road; small observation window into adjacent former Generator Room; double doors into adjacent former Condenser Room; and large openings (originally opening to exterior service area) in the entire rear (south) wall
  • robust surfaces: concrete floor; brick walls; exposed timber king post roof trusses
  • openings in rear wall: concrete posts with mouldings; stop-chamfering; and timber valance
  • ventilated roof lantern
  • joinery: timber-framed double hung observation window and double doors with moulded panels

Features of the Machine Workshop not of state-level cultural heritage significance are:

  • roller door to entrance door and enclosures to south wall (formerly-open)
  • small, part-height room at west end of space
  • later fixtures, fittings, and machines

Features of the Office, Generator, and Workshop Building not of state-level cultural heritage significance are:

  • Machine Workshop Extension (1968)
  • Welding Bay Annexe (1977)

Well G Fan House (1941)

This is a small, square, single-storey, face brick building on a concrete slab. It is freestanding to the west of the Engine House Annexe, which houses Well G.

Features of Well G Fan House also of state-level cultural heritage significance are:

  • short-ridge hip roof clad with corrugated metal sheets, timber batten-lined ventilated eaves, metal quad gutters
  • fixed louvre ventilation
  • large timber-framed boarded double doors

Features of Well G Fan House not of state-level cultural heritage significance are:

  • adjacent later metal sheet-clad structure
  • interior features

Electrical Substation (1948)

This is a fenced array of external electrical infrastructure standing south of the Engine Room Annexe. The features of the Electrical Substation of state-level cultural heritage significance are those constructed in the 1940s.

Service Lane

A service lane runs south from the front forecourt between the Pumping Station building and the Office, Generator, and Workshop Building. It is a wide clear lane to provide ample access into these buildings for large industrial equipment.

Movable heritage features

Remnant machinery, equipment, fixtures, and fittings are located in the Pumping Station building and its grounds. Those with provenance associated with the fabric or operation of the Pumping Station, tramway, and ropeway (from 1892 to 1949) are of state-level cultural heritage significance.

Several movable features are located in the Flood Free Shed that stands to the southeast of the Pumping Station, on high land. The shed, surrounding concrete pad, and security fence are not of state-level cultural heritage significance, however, this area is used to store remnant machinery and equipment from the Pumping Station.

Features of state-level cultural heritage significance of the Flood Free Shed are:

  • 15 tonne travelling crane frame (1915), its hand-operated crane (1915), and supplementary electric crane (1959) and controller
  • remnant steam-powered machinery parts, including fly-wheel segments
  • remnant tramway winch parts
  • winch for wells
  • lead melting bucket
  • tar melting bucket
  • Darra foundry metal cap
  • electrical mechanism
  • hydraulic jacks
  • mounting platforms for Hathorn and Davey engines, made and stamped by maker A. Sargeant Co. Ltd Engineers, Brisbane, and dated 1925 – located outside fenced area

 Features of the Pumping Station not of state-level cultural heritage significance are:

  • all other infrastructure, equipment, furniture fixtures, fittings, and services not mentioned above, including post-1930 underground pipes and services and built zones

Works Hill

This steep terrain is immediately east of the Pumping Station.

Features of Works Hill of state-level cultural heritage significance are:

  • a private road, and its cuttings and embankments, which runs from the 1926-28 overbridge up to Stumers Road providing vehicle access to the Pumping Station and residences
  • an electric tram winch house site (1914), located on the north side of the Stumers Road reserve approximately 200m east of the 1926-28 weir.[4]
  • Works Hill gardens
  • the Drayman’s Cottage and its separate house yard (1892)
  • four Fireman’s Duplexes and their separate house yards (1892)
  • the Third Engineer’s House and its separate house yard (1891)
  • the Second Engineer’s House and its separate house yard (1891)
  • the Recreation Area
  • the Community Hall (1919)

The residences stand on a ridgeline on the south side of the private road down to the Pumping Station. From lowest (west) to highest (east), these are: (closest to the Pumping Station) the Drayman’s Cottage; the four Fireman’s Duplexes; the Third Engineer’s House; and the Second Engineer’s House.[5] The Drayman’s Cottage and the Fireman’s Duplexes are similar in appearance and size but the engineer’s houses are grander in appearance and larger.

A row of mature fig trees (Ficus spp.) stand on the steeply sloping land behind (south) of the duplex (103 & 104), bordering a narrow service road on the Pumping Station land and shielding the houses from the station.

Drayman’s Cottage and Fireman’s Duplexes

The Drayman’s Cottage is a small, timber-framed and -clad, single storey, two-bedroom freestanding residence with a hip roof.

Originally identical, the four Fireman’s Duplexes (103 & 104, 105 & 106, 107 & 108, and 109 & 110) are small, timber-framed, single storey, two-bedroom semi-detached residences (with the exception of residence 104, which has a later (pre-c1925) third bedroom projecting from the rear). They have gable roofs and each pair shares a brick party wall.

Standing in modest yards and elevated on posts, the duplexes and the cottage have a similar four-room core and front and rear verandahs and the understoreys are mostly open with earth floors. The roofs are continuous over the verandahs and are clad with corrugated metal sheets.

Features of the Drayman’s Cottage and the Fireman’s Duplexes also of state-level cultural heritage significance are:

  • open yards defined by a boundary fence (however, the fence and individual trees or other vegetation and their locations are not of state-level cultural heritage significance)
  • rock-faced retaining walls and stairs forming terraced areas in the yards
  • small concrete slab and terraced area in rear yards that are remnants of former ‘outhouses’, including a brick structure (duplex 107) and timber structure (duplex 110)
  • single-skin verandah walls (with framing exposed externally) and side walls clad with chamferboards
  • window hoods with timber batten cheeks
  • high-level louvred ventilation openings in gable apexes
  • Drayman’s Cottage – brick fireplace extant but chimney has been removed
  • duplexes – brick party walls with back to back fireplaces and shared chimneys
  • battened, ventilated eaves
  • four room core layout comprising front sitting room (front entrance directly into room, no hall) and front bedroom, with second bedroom and kitchen behind; open front and rear verandah with small bathroom enclosure on rear verandahs (original)
  • later (by c1920s) hip roofed extension for rear third bedroom of residence 104
  • stop-chamfered timber verandah posts with simple collar mould and bracket
  • timber board floors
  • single-skin timber-framed partitions with moulded belt rails
  • VJ board wall linings
  • joinery: double-hung windows; panelled doors (internal) and boarded doors (bathroom); glazed fanlights; moulded architraves; fretwork ceiling roses with mouldings; small, coved bead skirtings and cornices; early kitchen fireplace mantle shelf and early boarded cupboards beside the chimney breast
  • beaded board-lined verandah and interior ceilings
  • original and early brass door and window hardware
  • laundry: original or early timber-framed tub stands and concrete laundry tubs

Features of the Drayman’s Cottage and Fireman’s Duplexes not of state-level cultural heritage significance are:

  • fences
  • sheds and carports in yards
  • understorey: non-original posts; non-original perimeter battening; and non-original enclosures
  • verandahs: front enclosures; non-original rear enclosures; balustrade enclosures; gates
  • non-original fabric of verandah stairs
  • later fixtures, fittings, and services

Third Engineer’s House and Second Engineer’s House

Originally identical, the Third Engineer’s House (111) and Second Engineer’s House (112) are generous, single storey, timber-framed and -clad, two-bedroom freestanding residences. Elevated on posts, the houses have wide verandahs wrapping all sides. An attached kitchen projects from the rear. The understoreys are mostly open with earth floors. The roofs are continuous over the verandahs and are clad with corrugated metal sheets.

Features of the Third Engineer’s House and Second Engineer’s House also of state-level cultural heritage significance are:

  • open yards defined by a boundary fence (however, the fence is not of state-level cultural heritage significance)
  • trees in Second Engineer’s House yard: two mature hoop pines (Araucaria cunninghamii) standing in the front yard, and mature frangipani (spp. Plumeria) in rear yard
  • small concrete slab or small terraced area in rear yards remnant of former ‘outhouse’, including a (possibly) relocated timber outhouse on stumps (112)
  • chamferboard-clad walls
  • roof with louvred ventilation gablets and battened ventilated eaves
  • open perimeter and timber stumps with ant caps of understorey
  • open verandahs with stop-chamfered timber verandah posts with simple collar mould and brackets, timber board floors, dowel balustrade, and beaded board-lined ceilings, lattice above entrance in Third Engineer’s House; original / early rear verandah enclosure on both houses
  • back-to-back brick fireplaces (smooth-rendered in interior) with brick chimney; metal surround (with decorative glazed tiles in sitting room only); timber surround and mantle; moulded timber skirting boards and cornices
  • layout comprising: four room core with front to back hall (front sitting room and bedroom and second bedroom and dining room behind); projecting rear kitchen; and open encircling verandah with small bathroom enclosure on corner of rear verandah (original)
  • front and rear timber stairs
  • timber board floors
  • single-skin timber-framed partitions with moulded belt rails
  • beaded board wall and ceiling linings
  • joinery: double-hung windows; glazed and panelled French doors onto the verandah; panelled internal doors and boarded ledged-and-braced doors; glazed fanlights; moulded architraves; fine fretwork ceiling roses with mouldings; moulded skirting boards and cornices in hall and small, half-round bead skirtings and cornices in other rooms
  • original and early brass door and window hardware
  • kitchen stove recess with small window
  • laundry enclosure in understorey and original or early timber-framed tub stands and concrete laundry tubs

Features of the Third Engineer’s House and Second Engineer’s House not of state-level cultural heritage significance are:

  • fences
  • sheds and carports in yards
  • trees and vegetation not mentioned above
  • understorey: non-original posts; non-original perimeter battening; and non-original enclosures
  • verandahs: non-original enclosures; non-original balustrade
  • flat sheet wall linings of kitchen
  • non-original windows and doors
  • later fixtures, fittings, and services

The Recreation Area

This sloping open area of land is approximately 3500m2 in the core of the Works Hill houses. Occupying part of Stumers Road road reserve, it is an irregular shape defined by the fences of the house yards and the road edge. It is grassed and has trees dotted across it forming an attractive setting. On the western corner of the area is a mature hoop pine. The other vegetation and driveways across it are not of state-level cultural heritage significance individually.

The Recreation Area has potential sub-surface artefacts and features from the brief but intensive ‘day labour’ workforce, which camped on-site while constructing the Pumping Station.

The Community Hall

The Community Hall stands on the north side of Stumers Road, highly visible from and central to the Works Hill houses.

Features of the Community Hall of state-level cultural heritage significance are:

  • its hipped roof form continuous over verandahs, which wrap the front (south) and side (east)
  • timber-framed and -clad highset form, elevated on an open understorey
  • perimeter batten enclosure of understorey
  • corrugated metal sheet-clad roof
  • timber-framed multi-pane double-hung windows in west wall sheltered by hoods with battened cheeks
  • large open hall space with exposed metal rods bracing at a high-level
  • low, rock-faced retaining wall onto Stumers Road

Features of the Community Hall not of state-level cultural heritage significance are:

  • rear extension (northeast corner), verandah enclosures, east-facing gable projection
  • roof whirly birds
  • later windows and doors in verandah wall including reproduction French doors of southern verandah
  • later flat-sheet with cover batten internal wall and coved ceiling linings
  • later verandah balustrade
  • fixtures, fittings, and services
  • all other freestanding structures and landscaping features including the shed, shade structures, play equipment, paving, trees, all fences (including boundary fence), gates, paths, and garden beds

Features of Works Hill not of state-level cultural heritage significance are:

features of the Stumers Road road reserve including road material, kerbs, gutters, lights, signs, electricity supply infrastructure (power lines and poles etc), and underground services

References

History:

[1] Judith Nissen, Creating the Landscape: A History of Settlement and Land Use in Mount Crosby, Thesis, University of Queensland, 1999, p.34.
[2] QHR 600174, Service Reservoirs, Department of Environment and Science.
[3] Ray Whitmore, Mount Crosby Waterworks, Heritage Study, Report for the Brisbane City Council, Heritage Unit, 1992, p.8; Judith Nissen, Creating the Landscape: A History of Settlement and Land Use in Mount Crosby, Thesis, University of Queensland, 1999, p.92; Department of Water Supply and Sewerage, Brisbane Water Supply System, Brisbane City Council, 1970, p.2.
[4] Queenslander, 12 December 1891, p.1114.
[5] The Week, 10 July 1891, p.11; a dedication plaque was erected at the entrance to the engine house at the time of his death commemorating Stewart’s service at Mount Crosby.
[6] Queensland Times, Ipswich Herald and General Advertiser, 25 February 1891, p.3; Telegraph, 8 November 1889, p.4.
[7] Queensland Times, Ipswich Herald and General Advertiser, 24 April 1891, p.3; Telegraph, 24 April 1891, p.2.
[8] Telegraph, 31 December 1890, p.3; Ray Whitmore, Mount Crosby Waterworks, Heritage Study, Report for the Brisbane City Council, Heritage Unit, 1992, p.19.
[9] Queensland Times, Ipswich Herald and General Advertiser, 17 October 1891, p.2; Ray Whitmore, Mount Crosby Waterworks, Heritage Study, Report for the Brisbane City Council, Heritage Unit, 1992, p.19; Ray Rogan, One Hundred Years of Service, Mount Crosby East Bank Water Works, 1892-1992, Brisbane City Council, 1992, p.13.
[10] Ray Whitmore, Mount Crosby Waterworks, Heritage Study, Report for the Brisbane City Council, Heritage Unit, 1992, p.19.
[11] Queensland Times, 17 October 1891, p.2; Ray Whitmore, Mount Crosby Waterworks, Heritage Study, Report for the Brisbane City Council, Heritage Unit, 1992, p.21.
[12] Brisbane Courier, 8 June 1893, p.6; the installation of the pumping equipment, however, did not go as smoothly as hoped. Excessive vibrations, which were thought to be caused by the machinery itself, threatened to damage both the equipment and the pump house. It was found, however, that the problem was not caused by the machinery, but the way it had been attached to the engine house walls. Problems with the casting in one of the wells also caused damage to one of the pumps.
[13] Brisbane Courier, 8 June 1892, p.6.
[14] Ray Rogan, One Hundred Years of Service, Mount Crosby East Bank Water Works, 1892-1992, Brisbane City Council, 1992, p.18.
[15] Queensland Times, Ipswich Herald and General Advertiser, 9 March 1893, p.5; Queensland Times, Ipswich Herald and General Advertiser, 7 December 1893, p.2.
[16] Queensland Times, Ipswich Herald and General Advertiser, 25 October 1898, p.4; Ray Whitmore, Mount Crosby Waterworks, Heritage Study, Report for the Brisbane City Council, Heritage Unit, 1992, p.14.
[17] Ray Whitmore, Mount Crosby Waterworks, Heritage Study, Report for the Brisbane City Council, Heritage Unit, 1992, p.66.
[18] Queenslander, 12 December, 1891, p.1114.
[19] Judith Nissen, Creating the Landscape: A History of Settlement and Land Use in Mount Crosby, Thesis, University of Queensland, 1999, p.97; Donald Watson and Judith McKay, Queensland Architects of the 19th Century, Queensland Museum, 1994, p.120.
[20] Australasian Builder and Contractors News, 24 January 1891, p.46; Thom Blake, Mt Crosby Residential Precinct: Cultural Heritage Assessment, A Report for SEQ Water, 2013, p.3.
[21] John S Garner, The Company Town, Architecture and Society in the Early Industrial Age, Oxford University Press, 1992, p.9.
[22] Thom Blake, Mt Crosby Residential Precinct: Cultural Heritage Assessment, A Report for SEQ Water, 2013, p.4.
[23] Telegraph, 24 November 1892, p.3.
[24] Thom Blake, Mt Crosby Residential Precinct: Cultural Heritage Assessment, A Report for SEQ Water, 2013, p.6.
[25] Telegraph, 24 November 1892, p.3; Brisbane Courier, 10 January 1903, p.7.
[26] Queensland Times, Ipswich Herald and General Advertiser, 27 August 1891, p.5; Telegraph, 12 May 1892, p.3.
[27] Raymond Whitmore, Queensland’s Early Waterworks, Department of Natural Resources, Queensland Government, Brisbane, 1997; Ian Cameron, 125 Years of State Public Works in Queensland 1859-1984, Director-General, Premier’s Department, Queensland Government, Brisbane, 1989; QHR 601081, Burdekin River Pumping Station (former), Department of Environment and Science.  
[28] Judith Nissen, Creating the Landscape: A History of Settlement and Land Use in Mount Crosby, Thesis, University of Queensland, 1999, p.30.
[29] Brisbane Courier, 29 September 1902, p.4; Ray Whitmore, Mount Crosby Waterworks, Heritage Study, Report for the Brisbane City Council, Heritage Unit, 1992, p.14; Ray Rogan, One Hundred Years of Service, Mount Crosby East Bank Water Works, 1892-1992, Brisbane City Council, 1992, p.19.
[30] Ray Whitmore, Mount Crosby Waterworks, Heritage Study, Report for the Brisbane City Council, Heritage Unit, 1992, p.9; Judith Nissen, Creating the Landscape: A History of Settlement and Land Use in Mount Crosby, Thesis, University of Queensland, 1999, p.98.
[31] Ray Whitmore, Mount Crosby Waterworks, Heritage Study, Report for the Brisbane City Council, Heritage Unit, 1992, p.43-44; Judith Nissen, Creating the Landscape: A History of Settlement and Land Use in Mount Crosby, Thesis, University of Queensland, 1999, p.98.
[32] Brisbane Courier, 10 May 1912, p.4.
[33] Ray Whitmore, Mount Crosby Waterworks, Heritage Study, Report for the Brisbane City Council, Heritage Unit, 1992, p.23; Daily Standard, 8 March 1915, p.6; Ray Rogan, One Hundred Years of Service, Mount Crosby East Bank Water Works, 1892-1992, Brisbane City Council, 1992, p.34.
[34] Ray Whitmore, Mount Crosby Waterworks, Heritage Study, Report for the Brisbane City Council, Heritage Unit, 1992, p.24; Daily Standard, 8 March 1915, p.6.
[35] Ray Whitmore, Mount Crosby Waterworks, Heritage Study, Report for the Brisbane City Council, Heritage Unit, 1992, p.66; Daily Standard, 8 March 1915, p.6.
[36] John Kerr, Triumph of Narrow Gauge: A History of Queensland Railways, Boolarong Publications, Brisbane, 1990, p.105; Telegraph, 8 March 1915, p.3; Ray Whitmore, Mount Crosby Waterworks, Heritage Study, Report for the Brisbane City Council, Heritage Unit, 1992, p. 66; Daily Standard, 8 March 1915, p.6; Queensland Times, 22 June 1912, p.6.  
[37] Telegraph, 8 March 1915, p.3.
[38] Ray Whitmore, Mount Crosby Waterworks, Heritage Study, Report for the Brisbane City Council, Heritage Unit, 1992, p.66-68; Daily Standard, 8 March 1915, p.6; Telegraph, 8 March 1915, p.3.
[39] Judith Nissen, Creating the Landscape: A History of Settlement and Land Use in Mount Crosby, Thesis, University of Queensland, 1999, p.165.
[40] Daily Mail,18 February 1920, p.6; Ray Whitmore, Mount Crosby Waterworks, Heritage Study, Report for the Brisbane City Council, Heritage Unit, 1992, p.25.
[41] Daily Standard, 21 October 1922, p.7; Ipswich City Council, ‘Kholo Reservoir Precinct’, Expanded Ipswich Heritage Study, 1995.
[42] Ray Whitmore, Mount Crosby Waterworks, Heritage Study, Report for the Brisbane City Council, Heritage Unit, 1992, p.25; Ray Rogan, One Hundred Years of Service, Mount Crosby East Bank Water Works, 1892-1992, Brisbane City Council, 1992, p.34.
[43] Ray Whitmore, Mount Crosby Waterworks, Heritage Study, Report for the Brisbane City Council, Heritage Unit, 1992, p.25.
[44] Ray Rogan, One Hundred Years of Service, Mount Crosby East Bank Water Works, 1892-1992, Brisbane City Council, 1992, p.33; Brisbane Water Supply System, Department of Water Supply and Sewerage, Brisbane City Council, 1970, p.3.
[45] Daily Standard, 2 July 1924, p.4; Judith Nissen, Creating the Landscape: A History of Settlement and Land Use in Mount Crosby, Thesis, University of Queensland, 1999, p.101; Brisbane Water Supply System, Department of Water Supply and Sewerage, Brisbane City Council, 1970, p.3; Ray Rogan, One Hundred Years of Service, Mount Crosby East Bank Water Works, 1892-1992, Brisbane City Council, 1992, p.33.
[46] Queensland Times, 1 February 1927, p.5.
[47] Ray Rogan, One Hundred Years of Service, Mount Crosby East Bank Water Works, 1892-1992, Brisbane City Council, 1992, p.34; Ray Whitmore, Mount Crosby Waterworks, Heritage Study, Report for the Brisbane City Council, Heritage Unit, 1992, p.16.
[48] Ray Whitmore, Mount Crosby Waterworks, Heritage Study, Report for the Brisbane City Council, Heritage Unit, 1992, p.29.
[49] Queensland Times, 21 April 1939, p.6; Queensland Times, 26 July 1940, p.6; Courier Mail, 9 August 11940, p.6; Queensland Times, 10 August 1940, p.6; Queensland Times, 6 September 1940, p.6.
[50] Telegraph, 18 January 1941, p.9.
[51] Telegraph, 29 April 1941, p.6; Ray Whitmore, Mount Crosby Waterworks, Heritage Study, Report for the Brisbane City Council, Heritage Unit, 1992, p.16; Ray Rogan, One Hundred Years of Service, Mount Crosby East Bank Water Works, 1892-1992, Brisbane City Council, 1992, p.38.
[52] Judith Nissen, Creating the Landscape: A History of Settlement and Land Use in Mount Crosby, Thesis, University of Queensland, 1999, pp.147-48; Ray Rogan, One Hundred Years of Service, Mount Crosby East Bank Water Works, 1892-1992, Brisbane City Council, 1992, p.36. It is possible that mobile 40mm Bofors type anti-aircraft guns, known to be used by the 113 and 114 Light Anti Aircraft Regiments based in Brisbane, were used; D Horner, The Gunners: A History of Australian Artillery, St Leonards NSW, Allen & Uniwin, 1995, p.312.
[53] The Electrical Workshop was moved to a separate building.
[54] Courier Mail, 31 March 1951, p.3; Ray Whitmore, Mount Crosby Waterworks, Heritage Study, Report for the Brisbane City Council, Heritage Unit, 1992, p.29; Ray Rogan, One Hundred Years of Service, Mount Crosby East Bank Water Works, 1892-1992, Brisbane City Council, 1992, p.39.
[55] Courier Mail, 31 March 1951, p.3.
[56] Brisbane Telegraph, 29 March 1951, p.5.
[57] Ray Whitmore, Mount Crosby Waterworks, Heritage Study, Report for the Brisbane City Council, Heritage Unit, 1992, p.32; Ray Rogan, One Hundred Years of Service, Mount Crosby East Bank Water Works, 1892-1992, Brisbane City Council, 1992, p.42.
[58] Ray Whitmore, Mount Crosby Waterworks, Heritage Study, Report for the Brisbane City Council, Heritage Unit, 1992, p.23.
[59] Ray Whitmore, Mount Crosby Waterworks, Heritage Study, Report for the Brisbane City Council, Heritage Unit, 1992, p.33; Ray Rogan, One Hundred Years of Service, Mount Crosby East Bank Water Works, 1892-1992, Brisbane City Council, 1992, p.42.
[60] Millace Simmonds, Journal of American Water Works Association, ‘Public Water Supplies of Queensland, Australia’, Vol.55, No.8, August 1963, p.1051.
[61] Ray Whitmore, Mount Crosby Waterworks, Heritage Study, Report for the Brisbane City Council, Heritage Unit, 1992, p.35.

Description:

[1] Remnants noted as extant in City Design, Mount Crosby Water Treatment Facility Conservation management Plan (update), Draft July 6 2005, p.23.

[2] Evidence exists on the ceiling (retained cornices) of the demolished hall wall indicating the hall ran from front to back.

[3] Early plans of the building show a larger Condenser Room (3 bays) and smaller Generator Room (4 bays) than the location of the wall evidences on site (Condenser Room = 2 bays and Generator Room = 5 bays). A closer on-site inspection may reveal the discrepancy.

[4] Remnants noted as extant in City Design, Mount Crosby Water Treatment Facility Conservation management Plan (update), Draft July 6 2005, p.23.

[5] The hierarchy originally continued with the Chief Engineer’s House being the largest, the only brick residence, the most isolated/private, and the only residence constructed on the northern side of the private road (actually accessed from Stumers Road).

Image gallery

Location

Location of Mount Crosby Pumping Station Complex within Queensland
Licence
Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
Last updated
20 January 2016
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