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Species profile—Solanum graniticum (granite nightshade)

Classification

Plantae (plants) → Equisetopsida (land plants) → SolanaceaeSolanum graniticum (granite nightshade)

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Species details

Kingdom
Plantae (plants)
Class
Equisetopsida (land plants)
Family
Solanaceae
Scientific name
Solanum graniticum A.R.Bean
Common name
granite nightshade
WildNet taxon ID
29793
Nature Conservation Act 1992 (NCA) status
Endangered
Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC) status
Endangered
Conservation significant
Yes
Confidential
No
Endemicity
Native
Pest status
Nil
Short Notes
Status annotated by author
Description
Solanum graniticum is a prostrate or sprawling, herbaceous resprouter that grows to 0.3 m high. The adult branchlets are yellow or brown, the prickles are straight, acicular, 2.5-9 mm long, 10-16 times longer than wide; with a dense covering of stellate hairs. The adult leaves are elliptical or ovate, shallowly to deeply lobed throughout, with 2 or 3 lobes on each side. The lamina are 1.2-2.6 cm long, by 0.6-1.3 cm wide, 1.6-2.4 times longer than broad, the apex is obtuse, base cuneate, oblique. The petioles are 0.15-0.45 cm long with no prickles present. The upper leaf surface is green with 1-3 prickles that are straight, acicular, 1 to 5 mm long and present on the midvein only; stellate hairs are confined to the midrib, or distributed throughout. The lower leaf surface is green, with 0-2 prickles that are straight, acicular, absent or present on midvein only; stellae sparse to moderate. The inflorescence is leaf-opposed or supra-axillary, solitary or pseudo-umbellate, common peduncle 0-1 mm long; 1 or 2-flowered, the flowers are 5-merous; pedicels 9-15 mm long at anthesis, same thickness throughout, 0.4-0.6 mm thick at mid-point with prickles present. The calyx tube is 2.5-3 mm long. The corolla is mauve, 9-14 mm long, shallowly lobed, inner surface glabrous; anthers 3.5-4.5 mm long. The fruiting calyx with lobes less than or more than half length of mature fruit, prickles 2-5 mm long. Mature fruits 1 per inflorescence, globular, about 15 mm diameter, green; mesocarp moist but not juicy; pedicels 15-27 mm long in fruit, 0.7-0.9 mm thick at mid-point; seeds pale yellow, 2.7-3.2 mm long (Bean, 2004).
S. graniticum is closely related to S. pusillum, but S. graniticum differs by the relatively small leaves, petioles without wings, the lack of finger hairs and very short, gland-tipped hairs, the smaller stellae on all plant parts, the mauve, shallowly-lobed corolla, and the longer pedicels (Bean, 2004).
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Distribution
Solanum graniticum is endemic to Queensland. It is found on Gloucester Island (near Bowen), and adjacent parts of the mainland, and at Eungella Dam (Queensland Herbarium, 2012).
Distributional limits
-18.9972, 144.1896666
-21.1398283, 148.5199568
Range derivation
Range derived from extent of the taxon's verified records
Habitat
Solanum graniticum grows in open eucalypt woodland on hillsides with shallow soil derived from granite or granodiorite. Associated species include Eucalyptus drepanophylla and Corymbia erythrophloia (Queensland Herbarium, 2012).
Reproduction
Solanum graniticum has been recorded flowering in February and March; and fruiting in March, May and July (Queensland Herbarium, 2012).
Threatening processes
Most populations are threatened by road and housing construction, weeds, and grazing (DERM, 2010).
Status notes
Listed as Endangered under the Queensland Nature Conservation Act 1992
Management recommendations
Recommended management actions are described in DERM (2010).
References
Bean, A.R. (2004). The taxonomy and ecology of Solanum subg. Leptostemonum (Dunal) Bitter (Solanaceae) in Queensland and far north-eastern New South Wales, Australia. Austrobaileya 6 (4): 639-816.
Queensland Department of Environment and Resource Management (DERM) (2010). Burdekin Natural Resource Management Region Back on Track Actions for Biodiversity. Department of Environment and Resource Management, Brisbane.
Queensland Herbarium (2012). Specimen label information. Queensland Herbarium. Accessed 20/03/2012.
Profile author
Ronald Booth (05/06/2012)

Other resources

Species Profile and Threats Database (SPRAT)
The Australasian Virtual Herbarium (AVH)
Atlas of Living Australia

Data source

This profile data is sourced from the QLD Wildlife Data API using the Get species by ID function used under CC-By 4.0
https://apps.des.qld.gov.au/species/?op=getspeciesbyid&taxonid=29793

This information is sourced from the WildNet database managed by the Queensland Department of Environment and Science.

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Licence
Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
Last updated
8 March 2022
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