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Species profile—Samadera bidwillii


Plantae (plants) → Equisetopsida (land plants) → SimaroubaceaeSamadera bidwillii

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Species details

Plantae (plants)
Equisetopsida (land plants)
Scientific name
Samadera bidwillii Hook.f.
WildNet taxon ID
Quassia bidwillii
Alternate name(s)
Nature Conservation Act 1992 (NCA) status
Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC) status
Conservation significant
Pest status
Samadera bidwillii is a small shrub or tree that grows to about 6 m in height. The petioles are 3 to 7 mm long. Its leaves are narrowly elliptic or narrowly ovate, the apex is obtuse, the base cuneate (wedge shaped), to attenuate, 4.5 to 18.5 cm long by 1 to 3.5 cm wide, they are glabrous (hairless) or sub glabrous, the lateral venation is parallel and prominent beneath when dry. The flowers occur in axillary clusters of 1 to 4, and each flower has 8 to 10 stamens, the filaments are pubescent on the outer surface, the sepals are 0.75 to 1 mm long and the petals about 2.5 mm long. The fruits are compressed, ovoid or ellipsoid, about 1 cm long and are 1-seeded (Ross, 1984).
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Samadera bidwillii has been collected from Scawfell Island, east of Mackay, to as far south as Bauple and west to Biloela. The species is distributed within Byfield National Park, Goomboorian National Park, Mount Bauple National Park, Mount Walsh National Park, South Cumberland National Park, Byfield State Forest, Cordalba State Forest Tiaro State Forest, Tuan State Forest, Young State Forest 3 and Callide Timber Reserve (Queensland Herbarium, 2012).
Distributional limits
-20.8734314, 149.6094042
-26.134242, 152.9231944
Range derivation
Range derived from extent of the taxon's verified records
Samadera bidwillii commonly occurs in lowland rainforest often with Araucaria cunninghamii or on rainforest margins, but it can also be found in other forest types, such as open forest and woodland, it is commonly found in areas adjacent to both temporary and permanent watercourses up to 510 m altitude. Commonly associated trees in the open forest and woodlands include spotted gum (Corymbia citriodora), grey gum (Eucalyptus propinqua), white mahogany (E. acmenoides), forest red gum (E. tereticornis), pink bloodwood (Corymbia intermedia), ironbark (E. siderophloia), gum topped box (E. moluccana), Gympie messmate (E. cloeziana) and broad- leaved ironbark (E. fibrosa) (Queensland Herbarium, 2012).
Samadera bidwillii flowers from December to March and fruits from February to May (Ross, 1984; Queensland Herbarium, 2012).
Threatening processes
The main identified threats to Samadera bidwillii are habitat clearing as a result of a range of activities including agriculture, forestry, urban development and recreational activities (DSEWPC, 2012).
The main potential threat to Samadera bidwillii is inappropriate fire regimes. The response of this species to fire is unknown. However, the spread of lantana (Lantana camara) and exotic grasses, including guinea grass (Megathyrsus maximus) and Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana), may threaten Samadera bidwillii. The establishment of these weed species is likely to be enhanced after fire (DSEWPC, 2012).
Status notes
Samadera bidwillii is listed as Vulnerable under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 and Vulnerable under the Queensland Nature Conservation Act 1992.
Management recommendations
Regional and local priority actions to support the recovery of Samadera bidwillii are outlined by DSEWPC (2012). A summary of these include: avoid habitat loss, disturbance and modification (e.g. identify sites of high conservation priority; where S. bidwillii occurs establish a protective buffer that excludes timber harvesting and clearing; ensure, road widening, maintenance, development, recreational and agricultural activities (or other activities involving substrate and vegetation disturbance) in areas where S. bidwillii occurs do not adversely impact on known populations); control invasive weeds (e.g. develop and implement a management plan for the control of weeds that links with the fire management strategy); manage fire (e.g. develop and implement a suitable fire management strategy for S. bidwillii that links with the weed management plan); increase conservation information (raise awareness of Samadera bidwillii in the local community, including landowners); and establish additional populations (e.g. undertake appropriate seed collection and storage) (DSEWPC, 2012).
The species was previously known as Quassia bidwillii.
Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPC) (2012). Samadera bidwillii in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities, Canberra. Accessed 27/06/2012.
Queensland Herbarium (2012). Specimen label information. Queensland Herbarium. Accessed 20/03/2012.
Ross, E.M. (1984). in Stanley, T.D. and Ross, E.M. (1984). Flora of South-eastern Queensland 1: 474.
Profile author
Ronald Booth (07/06/2012)

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Data source

This profile data is sourced from the QLD Wildlife Data API using the Get species by ID function used under CC-By 4.0.

This information is sourced from the WildNet database managed by the Queensland Department of Environment and Science.

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Last updated
8 March 2022