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Species profile—Macrozamia lomandroides

Classification

Plantae (plants) → Equisetopsida (land plants) → ZamiaceaeMacrozamia lomandroides

Photo of Macrozamia lomandroides () - Halford, D.,Queensland Herbarium, DERM
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Species details

Kingdom
Plantae (plants)
Class
Equisetopsida (land plants)
Family
Zamiaceae
Scientific name
Macrozamia lomandroides D.L.Jones
WildNet taxon ID
8511
Nature Conservation Act 1992 (NCA) status
Endangered
Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC) status
Endangered
Back on Track (BoT) status
Critical
Conservation significant
Yes
Confidential
Yes
Endemicity
Native
Pest status
Nil
Short Notes
Gymnosperm, status designated by author
Description
Macrozamia lomandroides is a cycad with an underground stem up to 25cm in diameter. It has an crown of 2-6 erect to spreading leaves. The dull green, mature leaves are 30-80cm long and hairless, except for wool at the base. Each leaf consists of 50-90 leaflets arranged on a strongly spirally twisted (1-8 times) rhachis (central stalk). The rhachis has two pale green to cream marginal bands especially noticeable towards the end of the leaf. The dark green leaflets are thick, leathery, dull, broadly linear, have 2-8 small teeth near the tip (1-6 teeth on one side and 1 or 2 teeth on the other) and are 20-35cm long by 0.9-1.4cm wide. The leaflet bases are pale green to cream and slightly thickened.
Male and female cones develop on separate plants and are somewhat pineapple-like in appearance. Male cones are cylindrical, 12-15cm long and 4-5cm in diameter. Female cones are ovoid, 12-18cm long and 7-9cm in diameter. Seeds are oblong, 2.2-2.6cm long, 1.8-2.2cm in diameter and orange to red when ripe.
Macrozamia lomandroides is distinguished from other Macrozamia species by the small sharp teeth at the apex of the leaflets. (Jones 1991; Forster et al. 1994; Halford 1995; Hill 1998)
Map
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Habitat
Macrozamia lomandroides occurs in Banksia and eucalypt dominated woodland or open forest communities with dense low shrubby (wallum) or grassy understorey. The areas are usually flat or rarely on a slope up to 40m above sea level. The plants growing among rocks on grey silty loam or sandy soils. (Halford 1995)
Behaviour
Adult Macrozamia plants have an underground stem and are able to resprout after loss of the above-ground foliage from fire. Seedlings and unburied seeds are usually killed by fire. Synchronous cone formation often follows fire. (Halford 1995; Queensland Herbarium 2007)
Reproduction
Mature cones have been recorded in October and November. Cones may not be annual when conditions are unfavourable. Ripe seeds occur from March to April and are not ready to germinate for at least nine months due to the delayed fertilisation unique among cycads. There is little evidence of seed dispersal in this species, the seedlings often being clumped in close proximity to the parent plant. A species of Tranes weevil plays a role in the pollination of Macrozamia lomandroides. (Halford 1995; Queensland Herbarium 2007)
Predators
All Macrozamia species contain toxins which can cause debilitating symptoms or death if ingested in sufficient quantities. (Halford 1995; Queensland Herbarium 2007)
Threatening processes
Land clearing for sugar cane, highly collectable and regularly 'poached'.
Management documents
Conservation and management of protected plants in trade in Queensland 1995-1998. Department of Environment.
Notes
Contributors: Weslawa Misiak, 10/09/1998; Ailsa Holland, Mellisa Mayhew 18/06/2009
References
Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (2008). Macrozamia lomandroides in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, Canberra. Accessed 08/10/2008.
Forster, P.I., Machin, P., Mound, L. & Wilson, G. (1994). Insects associated with the reproductive structures of cycads in Queensland and north-east New South Wlaes, Australia. Biotropica 26: 217-222.
Halford, D. (1995). Macrozamia lomandroides, in Species Management Manual. Department of Natural Resources, Brisbane.
Herbrecs (2008). Macrozamia lomandroides, in BriMapper version 2.12. Queensland Herbarium. Accessed 08/10/2008.
Hill, K.D. in McCarthy, P.M. (Ed) (1998). Flora of Australia 48: 651.
Jones, D.L. (1991). Notes on Macrozamia Miq. (Zamiaceae) in Queensland with the description of two new species in section Parazamia (Miq.) Miq. Austrobaileya 3(3): 483.
Queensland Herbarium (2007). National Multi-species Recovery Plan for the cycads, Cycas megacarpa, Cycas ophiolitica, Macrozamia cranei, Macrozamia lomandroides, Macrozamia pauli-guilielmi and Macrozamia platyrhachis. Report to Department of the Environment and Water Resources, Canberra. Environmental Protection Agency, Brisbane. http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/pubs/cycads.pdf
Profile author
Ailsa Holland (18/06/2009)

Other resources

Species Profile and Threats Database (SPRAT)
The Australasian Virtual Herbarium (AVH)
Atlas of Living Australia

Data source

This profile data is sourced from the QLD Wildlife Data API using the Get species by ID function used under CC-By 4.0
https://apps.des.qld.gov.au/species/?op=getspeciesbyid&taxonid=8511

This information is sourced from the WildNet database managed by the Queensland Department of Environment and Science.

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Licence
Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
Last updated
23 October 2019
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